A new report by the United Nations Human Rights Council highlights how much of a global issue spyware has become. The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights calls for greater attention to threats to data privacy, to the development of state-sponsored spyware capabilities, and especially to the dangerous software Pegasus, which can remotely infiltrate smartphones and turn them into spying devices. PPSA has reported in the past on the emerging threat Pegasus poses to nations and individuals around the world. It is heartening to see the UN take this data privacy crisis seriously as a human rights issue.
The UN report focuses on three core trends relating to the role of member states in safeguarding and promoting the right to privacy:
The report draws special attention to Pegasus.
“The extent of Pegasus spyware operations and the number of victims are staggering… Reporting in 2021 revealed that at least 189 journalists, 85 human rights defenders, over 600 politicians and government officials, including cabinet ministers, and diplomats were affected as targets.”
The report notes that at least 65 governments have acquired commercial spyware surveillance tools. NSO Group, the Israeli company that developed Pegasus, reported that 60 government agencies in 45 countries are among its customers.
The UN report states: “While purportedly being deployed for combating terrorism and crime, such spyware tools have often been used for illegitimate reasons, including to clamp down on critical or dissenting views and on those who express them, including journalists, opposition political figures and human rights defenders…”
The report also condemned efforts by governments to undermine the security and confidentiality of encrypted communications – a key goal not just of repressive regimes, PPSA would add, but of some in the Department of Justice and FBI.
Governments continue to take steps to undermine that privacy, either by legislative fiat or by sophisticated hacking techniques. In some countries, encryption providers have been required to ensure that law enforcement or other government agencies have access to all communications upon request, effectively obliterating any privacy that encryption may have provided.
This is a brave report. PPSA is pleased to see the UN Human Rights Council recognize privacy as a human right, contrary to the practice of repressive governments, including China and Russia, which have seats on the UN Security Council. Unfortunately, the UN’s warnings on pervasive surveillance also need to be taken seriously by democratic governments, including some in positions of authority in the United States.
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